Canada A Yearly Journey – 1882

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On January 8, David Milne is born in Ontario. He would become a noted Canadian painter, printmaker and writer. He would be described as one of the three greatest North American artists of his generation by art critic Clement Greenberg, but he often found himself overshadowed by the Group of Seven. Today, he is recognized as one of our greatest artists and his work has appeared in the National Gallery of Canada, the British Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Art Gallery of Ontario. He would pass away on Dec. 26, 1953 at the age of 71.

On Feb. 1, Louis St. Laurent would be born in Compton, Quebec. While his father was a French-Canadian, his mother was Irish Canadian, giving the family a unique balance that would influence St. Laurent heavily in his life. Growing up bilingual, his gestures tended to be French, while his English had a slight Irish accent. He would speak French to his father, and English to his mother, a practice he thought was common in families and something that would influence in him in his desire for national unity as prime minister.

Growing up, his father was a strong supporter of the Liberal Party, even when the riding he lived in was dominated by the Conservatives. Jean-Baptiste would run in a provincial by-election in 1894 to no success. In 1896, when the Liberals and Laurier came to power, St. Laurent would relay the election returns from the telephone in his father’s store to many waiting in to hear the results. Despite having a passion for politics, he inherited from his father, St. Laurent was never drawn to the profession, preferring to focus on his law career. During the campaign tour of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, St. Laurent would meet him and shake hands with him, something he would relate later in life.

He would begin his professional career as a lawyer. Throughout the 1920 and 1930s, he worked as a corporation lawyer, and was the head of the Quebec Bar, and the president of the Canadian Bar Association from 1930 to 1932. During this time, he was one of the country’s most respected counsel. An example of the respect he commanded came in 1926 when Prime Minister Arthur Meighen offered him a seat on the Supreme Court of Canada, which he declined, and a post in the cabinet, which he also declined.

He would be 60 years old when he finally entered into politics and would become Canada’s Minister of Justice and Attorney General on Dec. 10, 1941.

Prime Minister King had called St. Laurent on Dec. 4, 1941 and asked him to be in Ottawa the next day. Over lunch, King asked him to take over as the Minister of Justice and the MP for Quebec East. At the time, King knew that St. Laurent was making $50,000 a year, or $850,000 today, so he appealed to his sense of duty to the country.

In the 1945 election, which the Liberals won with a smaller majority than before, many were surprised that St. Laurent ran given his original statement that he would not be in politics after the war. Nonetheless, he ran and picked up 59.8 per cent of the vote in his riding, and 17,000 more votes than his second-place opponent.

He would continue in various roles in the government including as the Secretary of State for External Affairs from 1946 to 1948.

As a representative for Canada at the founding of the United Nations, he felt that the UN would be ineffective in times of war, and that it would need to impose its will. As a result, he advocated for the adoption of a UN military force. He wanted a force that would deal with violent situations, but also preserve peace and prevent combat. A decade later, this idea would be put into reality by St. Laurent and his Secretary of State for External Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, in preventing the Suez Crisis from escalating into nuclear war.

On Jan. 7, 1948, he would become leader of the Liberal Party and a few months later on Nov. 15, 1948, he would become the 12th Prime Minister of Canada.

As 1949 dawned for St. Laurent, he would get down to work on several tasks, while also preparing for his first election and the first election for the Liberals without William Lyon Mackenzie King at the helm of the party. Prior to the election, he would help negotiate the entry of Newfoundland into Confederation on March 31, 1949, the last change to the Canadian political map until 1999, and the first new province since 1905, which came during the time of Sir Wilfrid Laurier.

The election, held on June 27, 1949, was the first with Newfoundland in Confederation and the first since 1908 with the Northwest Territories gaining representation. In that election, St. Laurent would win 191 seats in the house, an increase of 73 seats from the 1945 election. At the time, it was the largest majority in Canadian history, and today remains the third largest majority. It is also the largest majority in the history of the Liberal Party. The Progressive Conservatives would lose 24 seats, finishing with only 41.

Prior to that election, many worried if St. Laurent would appeal to post-war Canada but through the first use of a “media image” in Canadian politics, St. Laurent was shown talking with children, giving speeches in shirt sleeves, and having a common touch to appeal to voters. One example of this was seen in an election stop when he got off the train and went to talk to children on the platform instead of reporters. This gained him the name Uncle Louis, which greatly increased the view of his common touch and broad appeal.

For the Canadian public, St. Laurent was a breath of fresh air and many applauded his kindness for children. In 1954, while standing at a railway station in Ottawa with Prime Minister Yoshida of Japan, a young girl named Jill Winnett began crying because her grandmother was going to England for the winter. St. Laurent walked away from the Japanese prime minister and comforted Jill. Events like this pushed the view of Uncle Louis, the benevolent patriarch who loved children.

In 1949, he was a leading proponent for the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

DPIO(E)/Feb,54,A32(L)/A10(z) The Rt. Hon’ble Louis Stephen St. Laurent, Prime Minister of Canada.

Overall, St. Laurent took a harder line to Communism than King, disliking it to a much greater degree than his predecessor. He chose not to outlaw the Communist Party of Canada in 1949 as he saw it as too drastic of a measure.

One of the biggest projects for St. Laurent during his first term in office was the Trans-Canada Highway Act of 1949, which saw construction on the Trans-Canada Highway begin in 1950 and continue until 1962, creating the longest uninterrupted highway in the world upon its total completion in 1971.

One of the biggest challenges for St. Laurent during his term was the Korean War, which Canada entered in June of 1950 as part of the United Nations force. Canada would send 30,000 troops to Korea, along with warships and other forces. During the war, 500 Canadians would die, while 1,200 would be wounded. Overall, Canada submitted the third most troops to the war, all on a voluntary basis without the use of conscription.

Within Canada, St. Laurent would see a huge expansion of the social programs of the country, including family allowances, old age pensions, the funding of post-secondary education and the creation of Hospital Insurance, which would lay the groundwork for Tommy Douglas to create a universal health care system in Saskatchewan, followed by universal healthcare nationwide by the 1960s.

Through the modernization of social policies, the St. Laurent government would expand old age pensions for all Canadians over the age of 70, while introducing old-age assistance for needy Canadians over the age of 65. Allowances for the blind and the disabled were also introduced, as were changes to the National Housing Act that allowed for the construction of hostels and housing for students, the elderly, disabled and families of low income means.

In 1951, St. Laurent moved into 24 Sussex Drive, becoming the first prime minister to live in the present official residence of the Prime Minister of Canada

By 1954, St. Laurent was beginning to tire, especially after a trip around the world that same year, the first for a Canadian prime minister. At the same time, the Liberals were seeing their popularity begin to decline for the first time since the 1930s.

In 1956, the Suez Crisis erupted between Britain, France, Israel and Egypt and there was the danger that it would escalate into a Third World War that would likely go nuclear. St. Laurent and Lester B. Pearson worked to resolve the crisis through the formation of the United Nations Emergency Force. I will go into more detail about the crisis during my episode on Lester B. Pearson. While Pearson would be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, St. Laurent deserves as much credit for helping to create the force.

St. Laurent’s government would introduce equalization payments in 1956, which redistributed tax revenue between provinces to assist poorer provinces in delivering government programs and services.

Before the 1957 election, St. Laurent’s government would take $100 million in death taxes and use it to establish the Canada Council, which supports social sciences, arts, and humanities to this day.

When the 1957 election came along, St. Laurent was appearing old and out of touch at the age of 75. This was the first televised election, which would influence voters heavily. For the most part, St. Laurent did not make an impression over television. Many felt, especially after the 1956 Pipeline Debate, that the Liberals had become arrogant with power, having governed Canada since 1935. Several factions within the party were now looking at removing St. Laurent and he was also dealing with a dynamic new opponent in John Diefenbaker. In the election, held on June 10, 1957, the Liberals had 200,000 more votes than the Progressive Conservatives but most of those came in Quebec where St. Laurent remained immensely popular. The party would lose 64 seats, to fall to 105, while the Progressive Conservatives picked up 61 seats, taking 112 to form the new government. After almost a decade in power, St. Laurent was out as prime minister. The Liberals were also out of power, ending the longest uninterrupted run-in government for a party at the federal level in Canadian history. While many still wanted St. Laurent to lead the party, it was clear his heart was not in it, but his sense of loyalty prevented him from resigning. Lionel Chevrier and Lester B. Pearson, at the request of St. Laurent’s family, would come to the summer home and persuaded him that he would not be deserting the party if he resigned. A letter of resignation had been drafted by Pearson and after awhile, St. Laurent gave it his consent. He did so only on the promise from Pearson that he would run to replace him.

For St. Laurent, what had been a temporary career in politics had lasted 17 years and the Liberal Party had a new leader in Pearson.  

He would pass away on July 25, 1973 at the age of 91.

On Feb. 4, Edwin Pratt would be born in Newfoundland. He would go on to become a leading Canadian poet and a three-time winner of the Governor General Award for Poetry. He is often cited as being the foremost Canadian poet of the first half of the century. In 1930, he would be elected to the Royal Society of Canada, and would pass away on April 26, 1964 at the age of 82. IN 1975, he was named a Person of National Historic Significance.

On March 6, Barbara Hanley would be born in Ontario. She would eventually serve as the Mayor of Webbwood, Ontario, becoming the first woman in Canadian history to be elected as a mayor in a general election. She would serve from 1936 to 1944 and then as town clerk from 1946 to 1950. She would pass away in January of 1959.

On May 8, Prince Edward Island would hold its latest election, with William Wilfred Sullivan marching towards the fourth Consecutive victory and majority in the province. Sullivan had first become premier of Prince Edward Island, the fourth in its history, in 1879. Since that point he had become a fierce supporter of the island within Canada and he often protested against the federal government who he felt did not live up to its promises with Confederation, when the island joined Canada in 1873. In the latest election his party saw its support fall by 14 per cent, losing three seats but still maintaining a majority of 21. The Liberals, who were without a leader in the election, moved from six seats to nine.

On May 17, the internal borders of Canada were adjusted when the provisional districts of the North-West Territories are established between Manitoba and British Columbia, forming the districts of Assiniboine, Athabaska, Saskatchewan and Alberta.

On May 25, John Sparrow David Thompson becomes the premier of Nova Scotia, taking over from Simon Holmes. Sparrow had been in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly since 1877 but would only serve for two months as the premier of the province before losing in the 1882 election. He would then join the Nova Scotia Supreme Court and in 1885, entered federal politics and became the Minister of Justice. In 1892, he became would become the Prime Minister of Canada, the first Roman Catholic to have the position but he would die suddenly of a heart attack only two years into his term.

In June, the New Brunswick election was held, with Daniel Lionel Hanington initially won with 22 seats, while Andrew George Blair formed the opposition with 18 seats. Once the Legislature started up, Blair was able to win enough support from MLAs to topple the government of Hanington and form a new government with himself as premier.

On June 9, Robert Kerr was born in Ireland. He would come to Canada as a child at the age of five with his family and settle near Hamilton. Working as a firefighter, he enjoyed running in his spare time. He would turn that enjoyment into a short career, winning Canadian titles in the 100 yard dash in 1907, and the 200 yard dash from 1906 to 1908. In 1908, he would travel to the Summer Olympics in London, and would take gold in the 200 metres and bronze in the 100 metres. In the First World War, he would enlist and serve in various battalions. He would then go on to become a coach in football and athletics and was an official at the 1928 and 1932 Olympics. He would die at the age of 80 in 1963.

On June 13, Robert Beaven became premier of British Columbia, succeeding from George Walkem. Beaven had moved to British Columbia from Toronto and was first elected to the Legislature in 1871. Unpopular and accused of corruption, he would only last as premier until Jan. 29, 1883 when he was brought down by a Vote of No Confidence.

On June 20, the federal election was held, and by all accounts was quite benign. By this point, Alexander Mackenzie was out as leader of the Liberal Party, and he was replaced by Edward Blake, the man who was nearly prime minister when the Conservative government fell amid the Pacific Scandal of 1873.

There was a slight increase in seats from 206 to 211, and Manitoba saw its borders grow slightly, to about half its current size.

The Conservatives ran on the platform of the National Policy again, and were aided by good economic times. This was turned into a campaign focus that the party and its policies were responsible to the good economic times that Canada was enjoying. In contrast, Blake and the Liberals focused on a call upon traditions, and reform resistance to special privilege and what they said was oppressive rule. He would state that the Liberals were the special guardians and the tone of the public morality.

Once again, Sir John A. Macdonald ran in multiple ridings. This time he chose Lennox and Carleton.

As it would turn out, Macdonald would win in Carleton and Lennox, and he would choose to represent Carleton. Of course, the Lennox win would be thrown out after irregularities were found in the vote.

In the leadup to the election, there was a great deal of anticipation, according to the newspapers. The Montreal Gazette would report in Toronto, quote:

“The excitement in reference to the elections tomorrow is intense here. Business seems completely at a standstill and on the public streets groups are congregated discussing the possibilities. Betting is also lively and canvassers on both sides are working vigorously.”

It may seem odd to hear of betting, but that was prevalent at the time when it came to elections. On June 19, the day before the election, it was reported that a bet of $100 was made on the result of the contest, although it doesn’t say who that bet was for. That is no small amount of money either, amounting to about $10,000 today. In Toronto, betting was reported as very active. Since it was the 19th century, there was of course still reports of bullying, but this should be taken with an open mind as the Montreal Gazette was very pro-Conservative, and it only reported the Liberals in a typically unfavorable fashion.

A total of 70.3 per cent of eligible voters casted a ballot and most of those did so for the Conservatives. While the Liberals under Blake fared well, picking up 73 seats, an increase of 10 from 1878, the Conservatives lost only one seat, falling to 133 and retaining their hold on power with a majority government. The number of independents had also fallen in this election, with only five total, three of which came from British Columbia. Every province also voted heavily for the Conservatives. Quebec once again went behind the Conservative banner electing 50 to the House of Commons, and only 12 Liberals. Ontario was much closer, with 52 Conservatives earning a seat, compared to 40 Liberals.

The Montreal Gazette hailed the victory as magnificent on June 21, the day after the election. The article would state, quote:

“Every one of the supporters of the Government have done creditable work and only Prince Edward Island will send a minority of Conservative representatives to the new House.”

To celebrate the election, on June 22, a torchlight parade was held in Ottawa that included Sir John A. Macdonald in a front carriage with other prominent cabinet ministers. A total of 2,000 people joined the precession as it made its way through the city.

On that same day, the Nova Scotia general election was held, as I had mentioned earlier, and the Liberal Party, which had no leader, easily beat the Conservatives under John Thompson. The Liberals jumped 300 per cent in seats from six to 24, while the Conservatives fell from 32 to 14.

On July 19, Sarah Ramsland was born in Boon Lake, Minnesota. She would move to Saskatchewan in 1906 and settle in Canada to begin with. Over a decade later in 1917, she would be elected as the Liberal MLA for Pelli, becoming the first woman ever elected to the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. She would serve as MLA until 1925. She would pass away on April 4, 1964 in Prince Albert at the age of 81.

On July 31, Joseph-Alfred Mousseau becomes the premier of Quebec. He was first elected to the House of Commons in 1874, and would serve as the Secretary of State of Canada before leaving federal politics to become the sixth premier of Quebec. He would serve until Jan. 22, 1884 when he resigned.

The Nova Scotia Liberals, who had won the previous election without a leader, would find their leader on August 3 with William Thomas Pipes. His two years as premier would be mostly unsuccessful and his personal situation, as well as his relationship with his cabinet, were not the best. He would resign on July 15, 1884.

On Oct. 3, A.Y. Jackson would be born in Montreal. He would become a founding member of the Group of Seven and one of Canada’s greatest painters. He would paint war paintings throughout the First World War, and would become good friends with Sir Frederick Banting, the co-discoverer of Insulin. The two would take an Arctic journey together in 1927, in which they spent their time painting landscapes.

He would pass away on April 5, 1974 at the age of 91. He was awarded the Order of Canada in 1967, as well two schools are named for him and in 1970 he was awarded a medal for lifetime achievement by the Royal Canadian Academy.

Frank McGee was born on Nov. 4, 1882. Thomas D’Arcy McGee, was a Father of Confederation and his father, John Joseph McGee, was a clerk of the Privy Council. Following his schooling, McGee began to work for the Department of Indian Affairs but while he had a good paying job, his true love was sports. He did well in lacrosse and rugby, but it was hockey that he was meant to play.

McGee would be mentioned in the Ottawa Journal for his play on the football field, stating quote:

“Frank McGee’s play was one of the features of the match. Thing’s came McGee’s way on Saturday and when they were not, he was looking for work and he did everything without a miss. McGee handled the ball more than anybody on the field.”

His future career was nearly ended before it began when at the age of 18, he suffered a terrible eye injury in an amateur game while playing for the Canadian Pacific Railway team in on March 21, 1900. A lifted puck had hit him in the eye, and he would lose the eye in the process.

Still wanting to be on the ice, McGee would become a referee. Despite the fact he was missing an eye, he proved to be a good referee with the Ottawa Citizen praising him, stating quote:

“Frank McGee, who acted as referee gave every satisfaction and was quite impartial.”

That may have been the end of it but in 1903, McGee found he missed playing hockey so much that he wanted to get back on the ice. He would join the Ottawa Hockey Club, soon to be called the Ottawa Silver Seven, one of the greatest teams in hockey history.

He would begin practicing with the team in January of that year, and it seemed fans were happy to see him on the ice.

At the time, McGee was the youngest player on the team, and he stood five-feet-six-inches at a time when the sport was extremely brutal on the ice. Despite his age and small stature, he quickly excelled.

In his first game with Ottawa, he scored six goals.

By the time the season was done, he had 14 goals in six games and finished second in league scoring.

McGee seemed to be able to score goals at will. At least eight times in his career, he would score more than five goals a game. On Jan. 16, 1905, in a game against the Dawson City Nuggets, he scored 14 goals, including eight goals in a row in nine minutes. I covered the Dawson City Nuggets story a few weeks ago, so check it out. McGee had been limited to only one goal the previous game and players on the Dawson City team said he was not as good as they had heard. McGee responded with that record setting number of goals, which is by far the most ever scored by a single player in a Stanley Cup game.

McGee’s highest goal total in a single regular season game was on March 3, 1906, when he scored eight goals against the Montreal Hockey Club.

During the 1906 season, McGee scored an astounding 28 goals in seven games. In two playoff games against Queens University, he had six goals, followed by nine goals in two games against Smith Falls.

From 1903 to 1906, the years that McGee played for Ottawa, he won the Stanley Cup each year and scored 63 goals in 22 Stanley Cup games.

After the Montreal Wanderers claimed the Stanley Cup in a challenge game in 1906, McGee chose to retire from the game at the age of only 23. One reason for this was that his government position did not allow him to travel, and the job paid him better than his hockey job did.

McGee would continue to work for the government until the outbreak of the First World War. During those years, he spent his time playing golf at the Royal Ottawa Golf Club and curled with the Rideau Curling Club.

He would soon enlist with the Duke of Cornwall’s Own Rifles, serving as a lieutenant in the 21st Infantry Battalion. It is not known how McGee was able to enlist with only one eye. The medical officer wrote that he could see the required distance with either eye, which was not true.

According to Frank Charles McGee, the nephew of McGee, his uncle had tricked the doctor. When the doctor asked him to cover one eye and read the chart, he covered his blind eye. When he was asked to cover the other eye, he simple switched hands and covered his blind eye again.

Enlisting in October of 1914, McGee would be assigned to the 43rd Battalion and was expected to be one of the first Canadians to be called up to the front lines.

In January of 1915, McGee, who had the rank of a lieutenant, was playing hockey for the 21st battalion. The Winnipeg Tribune would report quote:

“Lt. McGee has lost but little of his cunning and was the centre of attention.”

In December 1915, the armoured car he was in was hit by a shell, causing McGee to suffer a severe knee injury.  He would recover quickly from it according to the news reports. McGee would leave the military hospital in February and was sent to Wales to a convalescent home in order to recover before he returned to the front lines. After his time in England to recover from the knee injury, he was then given the option of a post away from the fighting, but he chose to return to his battalion at the front. He stated in a letter home on Sept. 4, that he wanted to be part of the big push with his old battalion. It would be a fateful decision.

He would arrive back in the trenches in August 1916 during the Battle of the Somme.

On Sept. 16, 1916, he was killed near Courcelette. His body would never be found. His death would written about in newspapers across Canada.

In 1945, McGee was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame, one of the original nine players to be inducted. In 1950, the Ottawa Silver Seven and subsequent Ottawa Senators were voted the best team of the first half of the 20th century. In 1966, McGee was inducted into the Ottawa Sports Hall of Fame.

On December 3, the Royal Society of Canada would be formed. This society’s objective is to promote learning and research in the arts, humanities and sciences. The Society is Canada’s National Academy and it promotes Canadian research and scholarly accomplishment in both languages. The organization was incorporated by a statute put forward by the House of Commons.

On Dec. 9, Sir Hugh Allan would pass a way in Scotland. Born in Scotland but sent to Montreal to work as a young man by his father, he would return to Montreal in 1831 and become a commission merchant with his family’s firm, eventually becoming a partner and helping to build it to the point where it had the largest shipping capacity of any Montreal-based firm. In 1851, he would be elected as the president of the Montreal Board of Trade and would establish the Montreal Ocean Steamship Company. During this time, he also served as a director of the Bank of Montreal. Later in life, he would be part of the syndicate that would form to build a national railway. To get the contract, he bribed Sir John A. MacDonald, providing him with $350,000, or $42 million today, for his re-election fund as prime minister. This would erupt into the Pacific Scandal, which brought down the government of MacDonald and ended Allan’s hopes of becoming a railway magnate. When he died, during a visit to Scotland, he was one of the richest men in the world with a fortune valued between eight and 12 million Pounds, which would be 969 million to 1.4 billion Pounds today.

Various things would happen that did not have a date in place.

John Ware would arrive in Alberta this year. Ware was born into slavery on a plantation near Georgetown, South Carolina. When slavery was outlawed, Ware was in his early 20s and made the decision to travel to Texas so he could learn how to be a rancher and gain the skills of a cowboy. Thanks to his tall and muscular frame, he was hired to work his way up to Canada driving cattle from Texas to Montana, and then further on to what would one day be Alberta. This would make him one of the first black men to come to Alberta, when he helped drive the herd of 3,000 cattle into the future province.

Of course, there was still racist at the time and Ware was given the toughest horse to ride, and the most difficult tasks. His ability to do the challenges with success and humour quickly earned him the respect of the other men.

His move into Alberta came thanks to Tom Lynch in southern Idaho in 1882. Lynch had recently purchased that 3,000 head of cattle and he was looking for men to drive them up to his ranch. The drive began in May and ended in September at the Bar U Ranch.  Ware began to work at the legendary Bar U Ranch, before he decided to start his own ranch near the Red Deer River several years later.

It did not take him long to earn the respect of everyone who worked with him, but his nickname sadly reflected the times. It was a nickname I won’t repeat here.

On May 25 of 1885, Ware registered his brand as 9999, which would eventually be 999 in 1898.

In 1892, he would marry Mildred Lewis, daughter of a black homesteader in the area. They were married in the First Baptist Church of Calgary. The Calgary Tribune at the time reported its “heartfelt congratulations” noting that “probably no man in the district has a greater number of warm personal friends than the groom.”

Soon after their marriage, the couple moved to the ranch near Millarville.

By 1900, at the age of 55, he and his wife had five children on their ranch and they made the decision to move to the Calgary area, in the area of Duchess. Ware brought 300 cattle with him and apparently as logs came down the river, he would lasso the logs and haul them ashore. When was able to get enough logs, he built the house. This may seem far fetched but there is actually a picture of this in the Duchess local history book. The logs were apparently from an aborted log boom owned by the Eau Claire Lumber Company upstream. His wife and children lived in Calgary while he built their new home.

In 1902, their new home was destroyed by a flood so he rebuilt on higher ground with the new house overlooking the stream, which today is called Ware Creek.

Sadly, in 1905, his wife Mildred died from pneumonia. Ware, only a few months later, was riding a horse when it tripped in a badger hole, falling on Ware and breaking his neck.

The funeral for Ware was one of the largest ever for the early years of Calgary.

This was the year that Big Bear would finally sign Treaty 6 after resisting for four years. He felt that he had been betrayed by the other chiefs because they still signed even with his warnings. With food supplies running low and his people coming close to starvation, he had to sign the treaty.

After signing, the government told Big Bear to find a reserve to live on. Big Bear and his people did not want to live on a reserve but in order to receive food rations from the government, they had to.

In the first winter after signing the treaty, his people received no food rations since they were not on a reserve.

Also, the North West Mounted Police would establish a post in Regina. This would eventually become the official training location for the RCMP, which still exists to this day.

The North Bay Police Service was also founded this year.

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